Home » BIOLOGY CHAPTERWISE QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

Category Archives: BIOLOGY CHAPTERWISE QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

CHAPTER-4:Animal Kingdom

When any plane passing through the central axis of the body divides the organism into two identical halves, the organism is called _____________.
(a) radially symmetrical
(b) bilaterally symmetrical
(c) asymmetrical
(d) metamerically segmented

Which of the following is not the common fundamental feature for animal classification?
(a) Germinal layers.
(b) Pathway of water transport.
(c) Pattern of organization of cells.
(d) Serial repetition of the segments.

Animals like annelids, arthropods, etc. where the body can be divided into identical left and right halves in only one plane, exhibit___________symmetry.
(a) radial (b) bilateral
(c) asymmetrical (d) non- symmetrical

Which of the following is a fresh water sponge?
(a) Sycon (b) Euspongia
(c) Spongilla (d) Pleurobrachia

Few cnidarians like corals have a skeleton composed of
(a) calcium hydroxide (b) calcium sulphate
(c) calcium carbonate (d) sodium bicarbonate

Meandrina (brain coral) belongs to phylum
(a) porifera (b) coelenterata
(c) ctenophora (d) platyhelminthes

In ctenophora, the body bears _ external rows of ciliated comb plates, which help in locomotion.
(a) five (b) six
(c) seven (d) eight

Flame cells present in platyhelminthes are specialized in
(a) respiration and absorption.
(b) osmoregulation and circulation.
(c) respiration and excretion.
(d) osmoregulation and excretion

Polyp phase is absent in
(a) Hydra (b) Aurelia
(c) Physalia (d) Obelia

Which of the following group of animals reproduces only by sexual means?
(a) Ctenophora (b) Cnidaria
(c) Porifera (d) Protozoa

_____ is responsible for maintaining the current of water in sponge.
(a) Osculum (b) Porocytes
(c) Spongocoel (d) Choanocytes

Aquatic annelids (like Nereis) possess lateral appendages called __, which help in swimming.
(a) visceral hump (b) parapodia
(c) radula (d) spicules

Which of the following belong to phylum arthropoda?
(a) Bombyx and Apis
(b) Laccifer and Anopheles
(c) Locusta and Limulus
(d) All of the above

Which of the following is a living fossil?
(a) Balanoglossus (b) Echinus
(c) Ancylostoma (d) Limulus

A file like rasping organ for feeding, called radula, present in the phylum __.
(a) arthropoda (b) mollusca
(c) echinodermata (d) chordata

In phylum arthropoda, excretion takes place through
(a) nephridia (b) flame cells
(c) malphigian tubules (d) gills

In phylum echinodermata, the adult echinoderms are A___ but larvae are _B .
(a) A – radially symmetrical; B – bilaterally symmetrical
(b) A – bilaterally symmetrical; B – radially symmetrical
(c) A – bilaterally symmetrical; B – asymmetrical
(d) A – metamerically segmented; B – asymmetrical

In which of the phylum, excretory organ like proboscis gland is present?
(a) Hemichordata (b) Chordata
(c) Echinodermata (d) Annelida

Which of the following is not a chordate character?
(a) Presence of paired pharyngeal gill slits
(b) Ventral heart
(c) Solid and ventral nerve cord
(d) Presence of post-anal tail

Which of the following possesses electric organs and belongs to class chondrichthyes?
(a) Torpedo (b) Petromyzon
(c) Trygon (d) Exocoetus

Which of the following possesses poison sting and belongs to class chondrichthyes?
(a) Labeo (b) Myxine
(c) Clarias (d) Trygon

Which of the following pairs of animals comprises ‘jawless fishes’?
(a) Mackerals and rohu
(b) Lampreys and hag fishes
(c) Guppies and hag fishes
(d) Lampreys and eels

In amphibians, respiration occurs through
(a) gills (b) lungs
(c) skin (d) all of these

In amphibians, heart is __ chambered.
(a) two (b) three
(c) four (d) none of these

Heart is three – chambered in reptiles, except
(a) turtle (b) Chameleon
(c) Naja (Cobra) (d) crocodile

Which of the following is a poisonous snake?
(a) Naja (Cobra) (b) Bangarus (Krait)
(c) Viper (Viper) (d) All of these

Which of the following is a chordate feature and not shared by the non-chordates ?
(a) Metamerism (b) Axial organization
(c) Bilateral symmetry (d) Pharyngeal gill slits

Which of the following statements (i – v) are incorrect?
(i) Parapodia are lateral appendages in arthropods used for swimming.
(ii) Radula in molluscs are structures involved in excretion.
(iii) Aschelminthes are dioecious.
(iv) Echinoderm adults show radial symmetry.
(v) Ctenophorans are diploblastic.
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (i) and (iii)
(c) (i), (iv) and (v) (d) (iii) and (v)

Which of the following statements (i – v) are incorrect ?
(i) Circulatory system in arthropods is of closed type.
(ii) Parapodia in annelids helps in swimming.
(iii) Phylum mollusca is the second largest animal phylum.
(iv) Aschelminthes are dioecious.
(a) (i) only (b) (iii) only
(c) (i) and (iii) (d) (iii) and (iv)

Which of the following phylum is being described by the given statements?
(i) These are primitive multicellular animals and have cellular level of organization.
(ii) Digestion is intracellular.
(iii) They have a water transport or canal system.
(iv) They reproduce asexually by fragmentation and sexually by formation of gametes.
(a) Porifera (b) Ctenophora
(c) Coelenterata (d) Platyhelminthes

Which of the following statements (i – v) are correct ?
(i) The pelvic fins of female sharks bear claspers.
(ii) In Obelia, polyps produce medusae sexually and medusae form the polyps asexually.
(iii) Flame cells in platyhelminthes help in osmoregulation and excretion.
(iv) In non-chordates, central nervous system is ventral, solid and double.
(v) Pinnae are present in mammals.
(a) (ii), (iv) and (v) (b) (i), (iii) and (v)
(c) (iii), (iv) and (v) (d) (i), (ii) and (iii)

Which one of the following statement regarding coelom of given animals is correct?
(a) Round worms (aschelminthes) are pseudocoelomates.
(b) Molluscs are acoelomates.
(c) Insects are pseudocoelomates.
(d) Flatworms (platyhelminthes) are coelomates.

Read the following statements and answer the question.
(i) They are exclusively marine, radially symmetrical, diploblastic organisms with tissue level of
organisation.
(ii) Body bears eight external rows of ciliated comb plates, which help in locomotion.
(iii) Digestion is both extracellular and intracellular.
(iv) Reproduction takes place only by sexual means. Which of the following phylum is being described by above statements?
(a) Platyhelminthes (b) Arthropoda
(c) Mollusca (d) Ctenophora

Which of the following phylum is being described by the given statements?
(i) They are bilaterally symmetrical,triploblastic, segmented and coelomate animals.
(ii) The body consists of head, thorax, abdomen and have jointed appendages.
(iii) Circulatory system is of open type.
(iv) Excretion takes place through malphigian tubules.
(a) Arthropoda (b) Annelida
(c) Mollusca (d) Echinodermata

The following statement are associated with the occurrence of notochord. Identify the incorrect statement.
(a) It is present only in larval tail in ascidians.
(b) It is replaced by a vertebral column in adult frog.
(c) It is absent throughout the life in humans from the very beginning.
(d) It is present throughout life in Amphioxus.

Which of the following characteristics is correct for reptilia?
(a) Body covered with dry and cornified skin, scales
over the body are epidermal, they do not have external ears.
(b) Body is covered with moist skin and is devoid of scales,
the ear is represented by a tympanum, alimentary canal,
urinary and reproductive tracts open into a common cloaca.
(c) Fresh water animals with bony endoskeleton and air-bladder regulate buoyancy.
(d) Marine animals with cartilaginous endoskeleton and body is covered with placoid scales.

Which of the following statements is incorrect ?
(a) Prawn has two pairs of antennae.
(b) Nematocysts are characteristic feature of the phylum cnidaria.
(c) Millipedes have two pairs of appendages in each segment of the body.
(d) Animals that belong to phylum porifera are exclusively marine.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct regarding class aves?
(i) The forelimbs are modified into wings and the hindlimbs generally have scales and are modified for walking, swimming or clasping the tree branches.
(ii) Heart is completely four-chambered.
(iii) They are warm- blooded (homoiothermous) animals i.e., they are able to maintain a constant body temperature.
(iv) They are oviparous and development is direct.
(a) Both (i) and (iii) (b) Both (i) and (iv)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) (d) All of these

Which one of the following categories of animals is correctly described with no single exception in it?
(a) In chondrichthyes notochord is persistent throughout life.
(b) All mammals are viviparous and possess diaphragm for breathing.
(c) All sponges are marine.
(d) All reptiles possess scales, have a three chambered heart and are cold blooded (poikilothermal).

Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding flatworms ?
(a) They are acoelomates.
(b) They are bilaterally symmetrical.
(c) They lack a digestive system.
(d) They have a circulatory system

Which of the following is not a characteristic of phylum echinodermata ?
(a) They have a water vascular system.
(b) They have an internal skeleton.
(c) They are protostomes.
(d) They have bilateral symmetry at larval stage.

Which of the follwoing statement(s) is/are correct?
(i) Organ systems in different group of animals show various patterns of complexities.
(ii) The digestive system in platyhelminthes has only a single opening to the outside of the body that serve as both mouth and anus, and is hence called
complete.
(iii) In open type of circulatory system, the blood is pumped out of the heart and the cells and tissues are directly bathed in it.
(iv) In closed type, the blood is circulated through a series of vessels of varying diameters (arteries, veins and capillaries).
(a) Only (i) (b) Both (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i), (iii) and (iv) (d) All of these

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
(i) Animals in which the cells are arranged in two embryonic layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm, are called diploblastic animals.
(ii) Notochord is an ectodermally derived rod like structure formed on the ventral side during embryonic development in some animals.
(iii) In some animals, the body cavity is not lined by mesoderm, instead, the mesoderm is present as scattered pouches in between the ectoderm and
endoderm and such a body cavity is called pseudocoelom.
(a) Only (i) (b) Both (i) and (ii)
(c) Both (i) and (iii) (d) All of these

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct regarding phylum coelenterata?
(i) They are aquatic, mostly marine, sessile or freeswimming, radially symmetrical animals.
(ii) They have a central gastro-vascular cavity with a single opening called hypostome.
(iii) Digestion is extracellular and intracellular.
(iv) Examples are Sycon, Spongilla and Euspongia.
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (i) and (iv)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) (d) All of these

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct regarding phylum aschelminthes?
(i) The body is circular in cross-section hence the name roundworms.
(ii) Alimentary canal is complete with a well-developed muscular pharynx.
(iii) Sexes are separate (dioecious), i.e., males and females are distinct.
(iv) Nephridia help in osmoregulation and excretion.
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) (d) All of these

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct regarding phylum mollusca?
(a) They are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and
coelomate animals.
(b) Body is covered by a calcareous shell and is unsegmented with a distinct head, muscular foot and visceral hump.
(c) The mouth contains a file-like rasping organ for feeding, called radula.
(d) All of the above

Which of the following class is being correctly described by given statements (i – iv)?
(i) All living members of this class are ectoparasites on some fishes.
(ii) They have a sucking and circular mouth without jaws.
(iii) Circulation is of closed type.
(iv) They are marine but migrate for spawning to fresh water. After spawing, within a few days they die.
(a) Cyclostomata (b) Chondrichthyes
(c) Osteichthyes (d) Amphibia

Which of the following class is being described by the given statements (i – iv)?
(i) They are found in a variety of habitats- polar icecaps, deserts, mountains, forests, grasslands and dark caves.
(ii) Most unique mammalian characteristic is the presence of mammary glands by which the young ones are nourished.
(iii) Heart is four-chambered.
(iv) Sexes are separate and fertilization is internal.
(a) Reptilia (b) Aves
(c) Mammalia (d) Amphibia

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct for class amphibia?
(i) Body is divisible into head and trunk.
(ii) Respiration is through gills only.
(iii) The heart is two chambered i.e. one auricle and one ventricle.
(iv) Fertilization is internal.
(a) Only (i) (b) Only (iv)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) (d) All of these

Which of the following statement is incorrect?
(a) Platyhelminthes has incomplete digestive system.
(b) In coelenterates, the arrangement of cells is more complex.
(c) Nereis is monoecious but earthworms and leeches are dioecious.
(d) Simple and compound eyes are present in the animals of those phylum whose over two-thirds of all named species on earth are arthropods

Refer the following statement and answer the question. ‘Name of “X” is derived from stinging capsules. It exhibits metagenesis containing two body forms in which sessile and cylindrical form is called “Y” and umbrella shaped and free swimming is called “Z”. Identify X, Y, and Z.

In the following questions, a statement of Assertion is followed by a statement of Reason.
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true but the Reason is not the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) If both Assertion and Reason are false.

Assertion : The duck-billed Platypus and the spiny anteater, both are egg-laying animals yet they are grouped under mammals.
Reason : Both of them have seven cervical vertebrae and 12 pairs of cranial nerves.

Assertion : Torison can be seen in ctendium.
Reason : Ctenidium acts as the respiratory organ.

Assertion : Tapeworm, roundworm and pinworm are endoparasites of human intestine.
Reason : Improperly cooked food is the source of intestinal infections.

Assertion : Sponges have body organization of “cellular level”.
Reason : There is some physiological division of labour

Assertion : Ambulacral system plays major role in locomotion of echinoderm.
Reason : Hydraulic pressure of fluid and contraction of muscle of tube feet make possible movement of echinoderm.

Match the types of animals given in column I with their examples given in column II and choose the correct option.

(a) A – II; B – V; C – IV; D – I; E – III
(b) A – V; B – II; C – IV; D – I; E – III
(c) A – V; B – II; C – I; D – IV; E – III
(d) A – V; B – IV; C – II; D – I; E – III

Column-I contains organisms and column-II contains their exeretory structures. Choose the correct match form the options given below

(a) A – I; B – III; C – II; D – IV; E – V
(b) A – III; B – I; C – II; D – V; E – IV
(c) A – II; B – I; C – III; D – V; E – IV
(d) A – II; B – III; C – I; D – V; E – IV

Match the characteristic feature/terms given in column I with the phylum to which they belongs given in column II and choose the correct option.

(a) A – II; B – I; C – IV; D – V; E – III
(b) A – II; B – IV; C – I; D – V; E – III
(c) A – V; B – I; C – III; D – II; E – IV
(d) A – III; B – IV; C – I; D – V; E – II

Column I contains zoological names of animals and column II contains their common name. Match the following and choose the correct option.

(a) A – III; B – II; C – I; D – IV
(b) A – IV; B – III; C – II; D – I
(c) A – IV; B – II; C – III; D – I
(d) A – II; B – III; C – I; D – IV

Match the organisms given in column-I with their common name given in column-II and choose the correct option.

(a) A – II; C – III; D – I; E – IV
(b) A – II; C – IV; D – I; E – III
(c) A – II; C – I; D – III; E – IV
(d) A – II; C – I; D – III; E – IV

Match the phylum given in column – I with their example given in column – II and choose the correct option.

(a) A – IV; B – II; C – I; D – III
(b) A – II; B – IV; C – I; D – III
(c) A – II; B – IV; C – III; D – I
(d) A – II; B – I; C – IV; D – III

Match the phylum given in column – I with the special features present in them given in column – II and choose the correct option.

(a) A – III; B – IV; C – V; D – II; E – I
(b) A – IV; B – III; C – V; D – II; E – I
(c) A – III; B – IV; C – II; D – V; E – I
(d) A – III; B – V; C – IV; D – II; E – I

In which one of the following, the genus name, its two characters and its class/phylum are correctly matched?

In which one of the following the genus name, its two characters and phylum are not correctly matched ?

Match the animal name (column-I), with its characteristics (column-II), and the phylum/class (column-III) to which it belongs.

Which one of the following groups of animals is correctly matched with its characteristic feature without even a single exception ?
(a) Reptilia : possess 3 – chambered heart with one incompletely divided ventricle.
(b) Chordata : Possess a mouth provided with an upper and lower jaw.
(c) Chondrichthyes : Possess cartilaginous endoskeleton.
(d) Mammalia : Give birth to young one.

Column I contains the characteristics features and column II contains the function/ location. Select the correct match from the option given below.

Match the terms/feature given in column I with their examples given in column II and select the correct match from the option given below.

Match the features given in column I with their examples given in column II and choose the correct match from the option given below

The given figures (A & B) shows the germinal layer.

The animals having structures shown in the figures are respectively called
(a) diploblastic, triploblastic
(b) triploblastic, diploblastic
(c) diploblastic, diploblastic
(d) triploblastic, triploblastic

Refer the figures A, B, C and D given below. Which of the following options shows the correct name of the animals shown by the figures A, B, C and D ?

(a) A – Locust, B – Scorpion, C – Prawn, D – Pila
(b) A – Locust, B – Prawn, C – Scorpion, D – Pila
(c) A – Locust, B – Scorpion, C – Prawn, D – Snail
(d) A – Butterfly, B – Scorpion, C – Prawn, D – Pila

Refer the given figures A, B, C and D and identify the option which shows their correct name.

Examine the figures A, B and C. In which one of the four options all the items A, B and C are correctly identified ?

Identify the figures and select the correct option.

(a) A – Pseudocoelomate; B – Coelomate, C-Acoelomate
(b) A – Coelomate, B – Pseudocoelomate, C- Acoelomate
(c) A – Coelomate; B- Acoelomate; C – Pseudocoelomate
(d) A – Coelomate; B- Acoelomate; C-Eucoelomate

Identify the figure with its correct name and phylum

(a) Sycon – Porifera
(b) Aurelia – Coelenterata
(c) Pleurobrachia – Ctenophora
(d) Tapeworm – Platyhelminthes

Identify the figures A, B and C and choose the correct option.

(a) A – Male Ascaris, B – Hirudinaria (leech), C- Nereis
(b) A – Female Ascaris, B – Nereis, C-Hirudinaria (leech)
(c) A – Female Ascaris B- Hirudinaria (leech), C – Nereis
(d) A – Male Ascaris, B – Nereis, C- Hirudinaria (leech)

Identify the animals shown in the given figures A, B and C from options given below.

(a) A – Octopus; B -Asterias, C- Ophiura
(b) A – Asterias; B – Ophiura, C- Octopus
(c) A – Echinus; B – Octopus C – Ophiura
(d) A – Ophiura; B – Echinus, C- Octopus

Identify the figure with its correct name and phylum.

(a) Cucumaria – Echinodermata
(b) Ascidia – Urochordata
(c) Balanoglossus – Hemichordata
(d) Hirudinaria – Annelida

The given figure shows some characteristic features marked as chordates. Identify the correct labelling A,B,C and D.

(a) A-Notochord; B-Post-anal part; C-Gill slits; D-Nerve cord
(b) A-Nerve cord; B-Notochord; C-Post-anal part; D-Gill slits
(c) A-Notochord; B-Nerve cord; C-Gill slits; D-Post-anal part
(d) A-Gill slits; B-Post-anal part; C-Nerve cord; DNotochord

Refer the figures A, B and C and choose the correct option which shows animals that regulate buoyancy with the help of air bladder.

(a) A and B (b) A and C
(c) B and C (d) All of the above

The given figures A, B, C and D are the examples of first true land vertebrates. They are dominant in mesozoic era and belong to phylum ‘X’. Identify ‘X’ and the animals which have four chambered heart

(a) X – Reptile; B (b) X – Reptile; A
(c) X – Amphibia, C (d) X – Pisces; D

The given figures of animals (A & B) are distinguished on the basis of symmetry. Select the correct option which shows the type of symmetry and its description against the animals.

(a) A : Biradial, organisms is divided into unequal halves by any plane through the central axis.
(b) B: Bilateral, body is divided into equivalent right and left halves by only one plane.
(c) A: Asymmetrical, organisms is not divided into equal halves by any plane through the central axis.
(d) B: Radial, in which any plane passing through the central axis of the body divides the organism into two identical halves.

The figure given below shows the germinal layers marked as A, B, C and D. Identify the label showing undifferentiated layer and its location?

(a) A, Between B & C (b) B, Between A & C
(c) C, Between C & D (d) D, Between A & B

The figure given below is the characteristic structure of the phylum in which animals are aquatic, free swimming or sessile, mostly marine, radially symmetrical. Identify the phylum and correct function of the structure.

(a) Ctenophora; Emission of light.
(b) Porifera; Feeding, respiration and excretion.
(c) Cnidarian; Anchorage, Defense and food capturing
(d) Mollusca; Locomotion, transport of food and respiration

Which of the following feature is not correct regarding the figure given below?

(a) It is an aquatic form.
(b) Circulatory system is of open type.
(c) It possesses parapodia for swimming.
(d) Neural system consists of paired ganglia connected by lateral nerves to a double ventral nerve cord.

Which of the following animal’s body is covered by calcareous shell and unsegmented with a distinct head, muscular foot, and visceral hump?

Which of the following animal contains respiratory organs like, gills, book gills, book lungs or tracheal system?

Identify the correct characteristic feature shown by the given figure?

(a) Diploblastic in nature.
(b) Having radial symmetrical body.
(c) Dioecious with direct development.
(d) Presence of sensory tentacles on anterior head region.

Which of the following animals are bilaterally symmetrical?

(a) 1 & 2 (b) 2 & 4
(c) 3 & 4 (d) 1 & 3

Which of the following pairs of animals are similar to each other pertaining to the feature stated against them?
(a) Pteropus and Ornithorhyncus – Viviparity
(b) Garden lizard and crocodile – Three chambered heart
(c) Ascaris and Ancylostoma – Metameric segmentation
(d) Sea horse and flying fish – Cold blooded (poikilothermal)

Which of the following group of animals belongs to the same phylum?
(a) Earthworm, pinworm, tapeworm
(b) Prawn, scorpion, Locusta
(c) Sponge, Sea anemone, starfish
(d) Malarial parasite, Amoeba, mosquito

Which of the following traits is not shared by both sea anemones and jellyfish ?
(a) A medusa as the dominant stage in the life cycle.
(b) Possession of a gastro vascular cavity.
(c) Sexual reproduction.
(d) Nematocysts present on the tentacles

The combination of a true coelom and repeating body segmentation allows the annelids (unlike the anatomically “simpler” worms) to do which of the following?
(a) Attain complex body shapes and thus locomote more precisely.
(b) Move through loose marine sediments.
(c) Be hermaphroditic.
(d) Inject paralytic poisons into their prey.

The transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles required many adaptations in the vertebrate lineage. Which of the following is not one of those adaptations ?
(a) Switch from gill respiration to air-breathing lungs.
(b) Improvements in water resistance of skin.
(c) Alteration in mode of locomotion.
(d) Development of feathers for insulation.

Which of the following features distinguish mammals from other vertebrates ?
(a) Hairy skin and oviparity
(b) Hairy skin and mammary glands
(c) Mammary glands and teeth
(d) Pinna and teeth

Which of the following sets of animals give birth to young ones?
(a) Platypus, Penguin, Bat, Hippopotamus.
(b) Shrew, Bat, Cat, Kiwi.
(c) Kangaroo, Hedgehog, Dolphin, Loris.
(d) Lion, Bat, Whale, Ostrich

Which one of the following features is common in silverfish, scorpion, dragonfly and prawn?
(a) Three pairs of legs and segmented body.
(b) Chitinous cuticle and two pairs of antennae.
(c) Jointed appendages and chitinous exoskeleton.
(d) Cephalothorax and tracheae.

Which of the following is a correct match of a phylum with its three examples?
(a) Platyhelminthes–Planaria, Schistosoma, Enterobius
(b) Mollusca – Loligo, Sepia, Octopus
(c) Porifera – Spongilla, Euplectella, Pennatula
(d) Cnidaria – Bonellia, Physalia, Aurelia

Hemichordates have now been placed with the nonchordates, close to echinoderms, because true
(a) notochord is absent.
(b) pharyngeal gill-slits are lacking.
(c) dorsal nerve cord is absent.
(d) heart is lacking

Which of the following is not a characteristic feature of kingdom animalia ?
(a) Storage of carbohydrates as starch.
(b) Multicellularity.
(c) Obtaining nutrients by ingestion.
(d) Having eukaryotic cells without walls.

Which of the following characteristic distinguish arthropoda from annelids and molluscs ?
(a) An external skeleton made of chitin (a polysaccharide) and protein rather than a shell made chiefly of mineral salts.
(b) Subdivision of the legs into movable segments.
(c) Distinct group of muscles, derived from many body segments, that move the separate parts of the exoskeleton. (d) All of the above

Tracheae of cockroach and mammal are similar in having
(a) paired nature.
(b) non-collapsible walls.
(c) ciliated inner lining.
(d) origin from head.

A common characteristic of all vertebrates without exception is
(a) the division of body into head, neck, trunk and tail.
(b) body covered with exoskeleton.
(c) the possession of two pairs of functional appendages.
(d) the presence of well- developed skull.

The organisms attached to the substratum generally possess
(a) one single opening to the digestive canal.
(b) cilia on the surface to create water current.
(c) radial symmetry.
(d) asymmetrical body.

Which of the following statements is without exception in sponges ?
(a) They all have calcareous spicules.
(b) They have high regenerative power.
(c) They are found only in marine water.
(d) They are all radially symmetrical.

Which of the following characters is absent in all chordates?
(a) Diaphragm
(b) Coelom
(c) Pharyngeal gill clefts
(d) Dorsal nerve cord

Which of the following features in birds indicates their reptilian ancestory ?
(a) Eggs with a calcareous shell
(b) Scales on their hind limbs
(c) Four-chambered heart
(d) Two special chambers-crop and gizzard in their digestive tract

Which of the following characteristic is probably most responsible for the great diversification of insects on land?
(a) Segmentation
(b) Antennae
(c) Bilateral symmetry
(d) Exoskeleton

Which of the following is a connecting link between
invertebrates and non-invertebrates?
(a) Sphenodon
(b) Balanoglossus
(c) Tadpole larva
(d) Crocodile

A student brought home a strange animal which he found outside under a rock. It had moist skin, a complete digestive tract, a ventral nerve cord, and had gone through torsion. Identify the phylum of the animal.
(a) Porifera (b) Annelida
(c) Mollusca (d) Echinodermata

Identify the correct characteristics of porifera.
(i) Commonly known as sea walnuts.
(ii) Presence of ostia and collar cells.
(iii) Exhibit tissue level of characteristics.
(iv) It is the largest phylum of animal kingdom.
(v) The body is supported by spicules and sponging fibers.
(vi) Contains cnidocytes which is used for defense, anchorage and capturing of prey.
(a) (ii), (v) only
(b) (i), (ii), (vi) only
(c) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) only
(d) All of these.

A student was given a specimen to identify on the basis of the characteristics given below.
(i) They are metamerically segmented.
(ii) They have closed circulatory system.
(iii) They have circular and longitudinal muscles for locomotion.
Identify the specimen.
(a) Prawn (b) Pheretima
(c) Wuchereria (d) Ctenoplana

Refer the following animals and identify those which have a fluid filled body cavity with a complete lining derived from mesoderm.
(i) Sycon (ii) Butterfly
(iii) Nereis (iv) Sea fan
(v) Scorpion (vi) Pila

(a) (i) and (iii) only
(b) (ii) and (iv) only
(c) (ii), (iii), (v) and (vi) only
(d) All of these

Refer the types of cells present in some animals. Each cell is specialized to perform a single specific function except
(a) Cnidocytes
(b) Choanocytes
(c) Interstitial cells
(d) Gastrodermal cells

Select the incorrect feature of mollusca from the given statements.
(i) Terrestrial or aquatic animals having cellular system level of organization.
(ii) Radial symmetrical and acoelomate animals and possesses two germinal layers.
(iii) A file like rasping organ called radula is present.
(iv) Usually dioecious and viviparous animals.
(v) Examples include Pila, Octopus, and Dentalium.
(a) (i) and (ii) only
(b) (ii) and (iv) only
(c) (i), (ii) and (iv) only
(d) All the five statements.

CHAPTER-3: Plant Kingdom

The natural system of classification for flowering plants was given by
(a) Carolus Linnaeus (b) Bentham and Hooker
(c) Engler and Prantl (d) R. H. Whittaker

Phylogenetic classification system is based on the
(a) morphological characters of various organisms.
(b) anatomical characters of various organisms.
(c) physiological characters of various organisms.
(d) evolutionary relationships between the various organisms.

Cytological information like chromosome number, structure, behaviour are related with
(a) numerical taxonomy (b) cytotaxonomy
(c) chemotaxonomy (d) all of these

Flagellate isogametes and anisogametes are found in
(a) Spirogyra (b) Fucus
(c) Volvox (d) Chlamydomonas

Fusion of two gametes which are dissimilar in size is termed as _.
(a) isogamous (b) oogamous
(c) anisogamous (d) agamous

Algin, carrageen and proteins are obtained from
(a) red algae, brown algae, green algae respectively.
(b) brown algae, red algae, green algae respectively.
(c) red algae, green algae, brown algae respectively.
(d) green algae, brown algae, red algae respectively.

Which of the following class of algae is rarely found in fresh water ?
(a) Chlorophyceae (b) Phaeophyceae
(c) Rhodophyceae (d) Both (a) and (b)

Which of the following class of algae is mostly found in salt water ?
(a) Phaeophyceae (b) Rhodophyceae
(c) Chlorophyceae (d) Both (a) and (b)

What is the number and position of insertions of flagella in rhodopyceae class of algae ?
(a) 2 – 8, equal, apical
(b) 2, unequal, lateral
(c) 2 – 6, equal, lateral
(d) Flagella are absent in Rhodophyceae

In class phaeophyceae, the plant body is usually attached
to the substratum by a A and has a stalk, the B
and leaf like photosynthetic organ-the C .
(a) A – holdfast, B – stipe, C – frond
(b) A – stipe, B – holdfast, C – frond
(c) A – frond, B – stipe, C – holdfast
(d) A – stipe, B – frond, C – holdfast

Which of the following groups of plants play an important role in plant succession on bare rocks/soil ?
(a) Algae (b) Bryophytes
(c) Pteridophytes (d) Gymnosperms

_________ represent the reproductive organs amongst gymnosperms.
(a) Prothallus (b) Capsules
(c) Setae (d) Cones

In bryophytes, male and female sex organs are called ___ and___ respectively.
(a) microsporangia; macrosporangia
(b) male strobili; female strobili
(c) antheridia; archegonia
(d) androecium; gynoecium

Laminaria (Kelp) and Fucus (Rock weed) are examples of
(a) green algae (b) brown algae
(c) red algae (d) golden brown algae

Pyrenoids in green algal cells are related to
(a) starch formation (b) protein storage
(c) general metabolism (d) enzyme secretion

The heterosporous pteridophyte belonging to the class
lycopsida is
(a) Selaginella (b) Psilotum
(c) Equisetum (d) Pteris

Which of the following pteridophytes belong to class pteropsida?
(a) Equisetum and Psilotum
(b) Lycopodium and Adiantum
(c) Selaginella and Pteris
(d) Pteris and Adiantum

Cycas and Adiantum resemble each other in having
(a) seeds (b) motile sperms
(c) cambium (d) vessels

Protonema and leafy stage are the predominant stage of the life cycle of
(a) moss (b) dicots
(c) liverwort (d) gymnosperm

Which one of the following is a correct statement?
(a) Pteridophyte gametophyte has a protonemal and
leafy stage.
(b) In gymnosperms, female gametophyte is free-living.
(c) Antheridiophores and archegoniophores are present
in pteridophytes.
(d) Origin of seed habit can be traced in pteridophytes.

Why rhodophyta exhibit a red colour ?
(a) Since most rhodophyta grow at great depths, the
chlorophyll can only absorb light in the red area of
the spectrum.
(b) The wavelengths of light that are absorbed by
chloro- phyll are passed to phycoerythrin (a red
pigment).
(c) Red pigment of rhodophyta absorbs all the light
waves.
(d) The light reaching the greatest depth in water is in
the blue-green region of the spectrum, is absorbed
by phycoerythrin.

Which of the following statement is incorrect ?
(a) Double fertilization is unique to gymnosperms and
monocotyledons.
(b) Sequoia, a gymnosperm, is one of the tallest tree
species.
(c) Phaeophyceae members possess chlorophyll a and
c, carotenoids and xanthophylls.
(d) Moss is a gametophyte which consists of two stages
namely, protonemal stage and leafy stage.

Which one of the following is the major difference
between mosses and ferns ?
(a) Ferns lack alternation of generation while mosses
show the same.
(b) Mosses are facultative aerobes while ferns are
obligate aerobes.
(c) Vascular bundles of ferns show xylem vessels while
those of mosses lack it.
(d) Sporophytes of ferns live much longer as compared
to the sporophytes of mosses

What is the similarity between gymnosperms and
angiosperms?
(a) Phloem of both have companian cells.
(b) Endosperm is formed before fertilization in both.
(c) Origin of ovule and seed is similar in both.
(d) Both have leaves, stem and roots.

Which one of the following terms is correctly matched
with their definition in Pinus ?
(a) Monoecious – Male (microsporangiate) and female
(megasporangiate) cones are produced on same
plant.
(b) Monoecious – Male and female sporophylls borne
on same strobilus.
(c) Dioecious – Male and female cones are produced on
different plants.
(d) Monoecious – Micro and megasporocarp develop
on same plant.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about
mosses ?
(a) The predominant stage of its life cycle is the
gametophyte which consists of two stages –
protonema and leafy stages.
(b) Leafy stage are attached to the soil through
multi-cellular and branched rhizoids.
(c) Sex organs-antheridia and archegonia are produced
at the apex of the leafy shoots.
(d) All of the above

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct ?
(a) In angiosperms, each embryo sac has a three-celled egg apparatus – one egg cell and two synergids, three antipodal cells and two polar nuclei.
(b) All seed – bearing plants i.e., gymnosperms and angiosperms follow dipontic life patterns of plants.
(c) In gymosperms, roots in some genera have fungal association in the form of mycorrhiza (Pinus) while in some others (Cycas) small specialized roots called coralloid are associated with N2 – fixing cyanobacteria.
(d) All of the above

Which one of the following statements concerning the algae is incorrect ?
(a) Most algae are photosynthetic.
(b) Algae can be classified according to their pigments.
(c) All algae are filamentous.
(d) Spirogyra does not produce zoospores.

Which of the following statements is/are correct ?
(i) In Equisetum, the female gametophyte is retained
on the parent sporophyte.
(ii) In Ginkgo, male gametophyte is not independent.
(iii) The sporophyte in Riccia is more developed than
that in Polytrichum.
(iv) Sexual reproduction in Volvox is isogamous.
(a) Two (b) Three
(c) Four (d) One

Consider the following statements regarding gymnosperms and choose the correct option.
(i) In gymnosperms, the male and female gametophytes have an independent existence.
(ii) The multicellular female gametophyte is retained within the megasporangium.
(iii) The gymnosperms are heterosporous. Of these statements
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct but (iii) is incorrect
(b) (i) and (iii) are correct but (ii) is incorrect
(c) (ii) and (iii) are incorrect but (i) is correct
(d) (ii) and (iii) are correct but (i) is incorrect

Which of the following statements with respect to algae are correct.
(i) Fusion between one large, non-motile female gamete and a smaller, motile male gamete is termed as oogamous.
(ii) Fusion of two gametes dissimilar in size is termed as oogamous.
(iii) Fusion of two gametes similar in size is called anisogamous.
(iv) In chlorophyceae, the major pigments are chlorophyll a and b , and the food is stored as starch.
(v) In rhodophyceae, the major pigments are chlorophyll a and d , and the food is stored as mannitol.
(a) (i) and (v) (b) (iii) and (v)
(c) (i) and (ii) (d) (i) and (iv)

Which of the following statements with respect to gymnosperms and angiosperms is/are correct?
(i) The process of double fertilization is present in gymnosperms.
(ii) Angiosperms range in size from microscopic Wolffia to tall trees of Sequoia.
(iii) In gymnosperms, the seeds are not covered.
(iv) In gymnosperms, the male and female gametophytes have an independent free living existence.
Of the above statements
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (iii) only
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (iii) and (iv)

Read the following statements and choose the correct option.
(i) In rhodophyceae, food is stored in the form of mannitol and laminarin.
(ii) The ovules of gymnosperms are not enclosed by ovary wall.
(iii) Salvinia is heterosporous.
(iv) In the diplontic life-cycle, the free living gametophyte represents the dominant phase.
(a) (ii) and (iii) are correct but (i) and (iv) are incorrect.
(b) (ii) and (iv) are correct but (i) and (iii) are incorrect.
(c) (iii) and (iv) are correct but (i) and (ii) are incorrect.
(d) (i) and (ii) are correct but (iii) and (iv) are incorrect.

Consider the following statements regarding the major pigments and stored food in the different groups of algae and choose the correct option
(i) In chlorophyceae, the stored food material is starch and the major pigments are chlorophyll-a and d.
(ii) In phaeophyceae, laminarian is the stored food and major pigments are chlorophyll-a and b.
(iii) In rhodophyceae, floridean starch is the stored food and the major pigments are chlorophyll-a, d and phycoerythrin.
(a) (i) is correct, but (ii) and (iii) are incorrect
(b) (i) and (ii) are correct, but (iii) is incorrect
(c) (i) and (iii) are correct, but (ii) is incorrect
(d) (iii) is correct, but (i) and (ii) are incorrect

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
(i) Green algae are the members of chlorophyceae.
(ii) Brown algae are found primarily in marine habitates
(iii) Some red algae are found in fresh water, mostly occur in salt water, some are found in brackish water.
(iv) The food in red algae is stored as floridean starch.
(v) Red alga may occur in both well-lighted regions close to water-surface and also at great depths in oceans where light penetration is little.
(a) (i) and (v) only
(b) (ii), (iii) and (iv) only
(c) All of the above
(d) None of the above

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about gemmae ?
(i) These are specialised structures by which asexual reproduction take place in liverworts.
(ii) They are green, multicellular and asexual buds.
(iii) They develop in small receptacles called gemma cups.
(iv) They detach from parent body and germinate to form
new individuals.

(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) (d) All of these

Which of the following branch of science is being described by the given statements ?
(i) It can easily done by using computers based on all observable characters.
(ii) Numbers and codes are assigned to all the characters and the data are then processed.
(iii) Each character is given equal weightage and at the same time hundred of characters can be considered.
(a) Cytotaxonomy (b) Numerical taxonomy
(c) Chemotaxonomy (d) b-taxonomy

Which of the following statements about algae is/are correct?
(i) Algae are chlorophyll – bearing simple, thalloid, heterotrophic and aquatic (both fresh water and marine) organisms.
(ii) Algae reproduce by vegetative means only.
(iii) Fusion of two gametes dissimilar in size is termed as oogamous.
(iv) A few of the massive forms of algae such as kelps, form massive plant bodies.
(a) Only (i) (b) Both (i) and (iii)
(c) Only (iv) (d) All of these

The following statements are associated with one class of algae. Identify the class of algae.
(i) One or more storage bodies called pyrenoids located in the chloroplasts are present in the members of this class.
(ii) They have a rigid cell wall made of an inner layer of cellulose and an outer layer of pectose.
(iii) Asexual reproduction is by flagellated zoospores produced in zoosporangia.
(iv) Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Ulothrix, Spirogyra and Chara are commonly found members of this class.
(a) Chlorophyceae (b) Rhodophyceae
(c) Phaeophyceae (d) None of these

Refer to the following statement(s) and identify the group of plant which is being described by the given statements?
(i) They include various mosses and liverworts that are found commonly growing in moist shaded areas in the hills.
(ii) They lack true roots, stem or leaves.
(iii) The main plant body is haploid.
(iv) They produce a multicellular body sporophyte which is not free living but attached to the photosynthetic gametophyte and derives nourishment from it.

(a) Algae (b) Fungi
(c) Bryophytes (d) Pteridophytes

Which of the following group of plant is being described by the given statements ?
(i) The plant body is thalloid.
(ii) Asexual reproduction takes place by fragmentation of thalli, or by the formation of specialized structures called gemmae.
(iii) The sporophyte is differentiated into a foot, seta and capsule.
(iv) They grow usually in moist and shady habitats.
(a) Liverworts (b) Moss
(c) Fern (d) Gymnosperm

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about pteridophytes ?
(i) The main plant body is a sporophyte which is differentiated into true roots and leaves.
(ii) The leaves are small (microphylls) as in ferns or large (macrophylls) as in Selaginella.
(iii) Genera like Selaginella and Salvinia which produce two kinds of spores–macro (large) and micro (small) spores, are known as heterospores.
(iv) Common examples are Funaria, Polytrichum and Sphagnum.
(a) Both (i) and (ii) (b) Both (ii) and (iii)
(c) Both (i) and (iii) (d) All of these

Which of the following group of plant is being described by the given statements ?
(i) They are plants in which the ovules are not enclosed by any ovary wall and remain exposed before and after fertilization.
(ii) The giant red wood tree Sequoia is one of the tallest tree species of the group.
(iii) The roots are generally tap roots.
(iv) They are heterosporous and they produce haploid microspores and megaspores.
(a) Algae (b) Bryophytes
(c) Gymnosperms (d) Pteridophytes

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about angiosperms ?
(i) In angiosperms or flowering plants, the pollen grains and ovules are developed in specialised structure called flowers.
(ii) They are divided into two classes : the dicotyledons and the monocotyledons.
(iii) The male sex organ in a flower is the pistil or the carpel.
(iv) The female sex organ is the stamen.

(a) Only (i) (b) Both (i) and (ii)
(c) Both (ii) and (iv) (d) All of these

Read the following statements and answer the question.
(i) Sporophytic generation is represented only by the one-celled zygote.
(ii) Meiosis in the zygote results in the formation of haploid spores.
(iii) The dominant, photosynthetic phase in such plants is free-living gametophyte.
(iv) Many algae such as Volvox, Spirogyra and some species of Chlamydomonas represent this pattern.
Which of the following pattern of life cycle of plant is described by the above statements ?
(a) Haplontic (b) Diplontic
(c) Haplo-diplontic (d) None of these

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct ?
(i) Agar, one of commercial products obtained from Laminaria and Sargassum are used to grow microbes and in preparations of ice-creams and jellies.
(ii) In phaeophyceae, major pigments are chl a, d and phycoerythrin.
(iii) Pteridophytes classified into four classes : Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Pteropsida.
(iv) Gemmae are green, multicellular, asexual buds, which develop in small receptacles called gemma cups located on the thalli.
(a) Both (i) and (ii) (b) Both (ii) and (iv)
(c) Both (iii) and (iv) (d) All of these

Which of the following statements is incorrect? (a) Pyrenoids contain protein besides starch.
(b) Sexual reproduction may be isogamous, oogamous and anisogamous in green and brown algae.
(c) Some of the members of algae also occur in association with fungi (lichen) and animals (eg, on sloth bear).
(d) The leaves in pteridophytes are well adapted to withstand extremes of temperature, humidity and wind

In the following questions, a statement of Assertion is followed by a statement of Reason.
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true but the Reason is not the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) If both Assertion and Reason are false.

Assertion: Double fertilization is a characteristic feature of angiosperms.
Reason: Double fertilization involves two fusions

Assertion: Members of phaeophyceae vary in colour from olive green to various shades of brown.
Reason: Phaeophyceae possess chlorophyll a, c, carotenoids and xanthophylls.

Assertion: Mosses are evolved from algae.
Reason: Protonema of mosses is similar to some green algae.

Assertion: Red algae contributes in producing coral reefs.
Reason: Some red algae secrete and deposit calcium carbonate over their walls.

Assertion: Coconut tree is distributed in coastal areas over a large part of the world.
Reason: Coconut fruit can float and get dispersed over thousands of kilometers before losing viability.

Assertion: Red algae contributes in producing coral reefs.
Reason: Some red algae secrete and deposit calcium carbonate over their walls.

Assertion: The peristome is a fringe of teeth-like projections found at the mouth of the capsule.
Reason: It may be of two types nematodontous and orthodontus.

Match the column-I with column-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) A – V; B – IV; C – I; D – II; E – III
(b) A – IV; B – V; C – I; D – II; E – III
(c) A – IV; B – I; C – V; D – II; E – III
(d) A – IV; B – I; C – V; D – III; E – II

Match the classes of pteridophytes given in column I with their examples given in column II and choose the correct option

(a) A – II; B – I; C – IV; D – III
(b) A – I; B – II; C – IV; D – III
(c) A – II; B – I; C – III; D – IV
(d) A – II; B – IV; C – I; D – III

Match column-I with column-II and choose the correct option.

(a) A – III; B – IV; C – I; D – II
(b) A – IV; B – III; C – I; D – II
(c) A – IV; B – III; C – II; D – I
(d) A – IV; B – I; C – III; D – II

Match the column I with column II and choose the option which shows its correct combination.

(a) A – III; B – II; C – I (b) A – I; B – II; C – III
(c) A – II; B – I; C – III (d) A – III; B – I; C – II

Match the column-I with column-II and choose the correct option.

(a) A – II; B – I; C – III (b) A – I; B – III; C – II
(c) A – III; B – II; C – I (d) A – I; B – II; C – III

Match the column-I with column-II and choose the correct option.

(a) A – I; B – II; C – III; D – IV
(b) A – IV; B – III; C – II; D – I
(c) A – II; B – III; C – IV; D – I
(d) A – II; B – IV; C – III; D – I

Match the column-I with column-II and choose the correct option.

(a) A – III; B – IV; C – I; D – II
(b) A – III; B – IV; C – II; D – I
(c) A – IV; B – III; C – II; D – I
(d) A – III; B – II; C – IV; D – I

Which of the following pairs is incorrectly matched ?
(a) Chlorophyceae – Major pigments are chl a and b.
(b) Phaeophyceae – Cell wall is made up of cellulose and algin.
(c) Rhodophyceae – Stored food is mannitol.
(d) Chlorophyceae – Cell wall is made up of cellulose.

The given figures (A, B, C, D) represent the members algae. Identify the correct option for the given diagrams.

Refer to the given figure (A, B, C and D) and answer the question. Which of the following figures are the members of green alga

(a) A, B and D (b) A, B and C (c) B, C and D (d) C, D and A

The given figures represent the examples of bryophytes. In them few structures/parts are marked as A, B, C and D.

Identify the option which shows the correct labelling of A, B, C and D.

Which one of the following options correctly represents the type of life cycle patterns?

(a) A – Diplontic, B – Haplodiplontic, C – Haplontic (b) A – Haplodiplontic,B – Haplontic, C – Diplontic (c) A – Haplontic, B – Diplontic, C – Haplodiplontic (d) A – Diplontic, B – Haplontic, C – Haplodiplontic

Identify the plants (A, B, C and D) and choose their correct names from the options given below.

The given figure shows the life cycle of an angiosperm. Few plants are marked as A, B, C, D and E. Identify the correct labelling from the given options.

(a) A–Stigma, B–Anther, C–Male gametophyte, D–Egg, E–Female gametophyte
(b) A–Stigma, B–Anther, C–Female gametophyte, D–Egg, E–Male gametophyte
(c) A–Stigma, B–Anther, C–Male gametophyte, D–Fertilized egg, E–Female gametophyte
(d) A–Stigma, B–Anther, C–Embryo sac, D–Egg, E–Female gametophyte

Which of the following example belong to the same class of algae?
(a) Chara, Fucus, Polysiphonia
(b) Volvox, Spirogyra, Chlamydomonas
(c) Porphyra, Ectocarpus, Ulothrix
(d) Sargassum, Laminaria, Gracilaria

A bryophyte differs from pteridophytes in having
(a) archegonia.
(b) lack of vascular tissue.
(c) swimming antherozoids.
(d) independent gametophytes.

Fern plant is a
(a) haploid gametophyte
(b) diploid gametophyte
(c) diploid sporophyte
(d) haploid sporophyte

The unique feature of bryophytes compared to other plant groups is that
(a) they produce spores.
(b) they lack vascular tissues.
(c) they lack roots.
(d) their sporophyte is attached to the gametophyte

If there are 4 cells in an anther, what will be the number of pollen grains?
(a) 8 (b) 4
(c) 16 (d) 12

Bryophytes are different from fungi in having
(a) land habit.
(b) sterile jacket layers.
(c) multiflagellate gametes.
(d) gametophytic plant body.

Moss peat is used as a packing material for sending flowers and live plants to distant places because
(a) it reduces transpiration.
(b) it serves as a disinfectant.
(c) it is easily available.
(d) it is hygroscopic

then the no. of chromosome in the cell of pollen grain is
(a) 14 (b) 21
(c) 28 (d) 42

A research student collected certain alga and found that its cells contained both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll d as well as phycoerythrin. On the basis of his observation, the students conclude that the alga belongs to
(a) rhodophyceae (b) bacillariophyceae
(c) chlorophyceae (d) phaeophyceae

Fruits are not formed in gymnosperms because of
(a) absence of pollination.
(b) absence of seed.
(c) absence of fertilization.
(d) absence of ovary.

What is common in all the three, Funaria, Dryopteris and Ginkgo?
(a) Independent sporophyte
(b) Presence of archegonia
(c) Well developed vascular tissues
(d) Independent gametophyte

In angiosperms, a mature male gametophyte is derived from a pollen mother cell by
(a) three mitotic divisions.
(b) one meiotic and two mitotic divisions.
(c) two meiotic divisions.
(d) a single meiotic division.

If you are asked to classify the various algae into distinct groups then which of the following characters you should choose for the classification ?
(a) Nature of habitat
(b) Structural organization of thallus
(c) Chemical composition of the cell wall
(d) Types of pigments present in the cell.

Protonema
(a) is a stage of gametophytic generation.
(b) is a creeping, green, branched and develops directly from a spore.
(c) produces lateral bud which forms leafy plant body.
(d) All of the above

The spreading of living pteridophytes is limited and restricted to narrow geographical region because
(a) gametophytic growth needs cool, damp and shady places.
(b) it requires water for fertilization.
(c) due to absence of stomata in leaf and absence of vascular tissue.
(d) both (a) and (b)

Classification of plants proposed by Carolus Linnaeus was artificial because it was based on
(a) only a few morphological characters.
(b) evolutionary tendencies which are diverse.
(c) anatomical characters which are adaptive in nature.
(d) physiological traits alongwith morphological characters.

Mosses are of great ecological importance because of
(a) its contribution to prevent soil erosion.
(b) its contribution in ecological succession.
(c) its capability to remove CO from the atmosphere.
(d) both (a) and (b)

You are given an unknown plant to study in the laboratory. You find that it has chlorophyll, no xylem. Its multicellullar sex organs are enclosed in a layer of jacket cells. Its gametophyte stage is free living. The plant probably
belongs to
(a) chlorophyceae (b) bryophyte
(c) pteridophyte (d) gymnosperm

Mosses do not have ‘true leaves’ because their leaf-like structures lack
(a) starch in their chloroplast.
(b) vascular tissues.
(c) chlorophyll.
(d) cellulose in their cell walls.

Place the following groups of plants in order, beginning with those that first appeared on the earth and progressing toward those that appeared most recently in time.
(a) Gymnosperms, angiosperms, ferns, moss, algae
(b) Algae, moss, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms
(c) Moss, algae, ferns, angiosperms, gymnosperms
(d) Algae, ferns, angiosperms, gymnosperms, moss

Chemotaxonomy is connected with
(a) classification of chemicals found in plants.
(b) use of phytochemical data in systematic botany.
(c) application of chemicals on herbarium sheets.
(d) use of statistical methods in chemical yielding plants.

In order to colonize land, plants needed to acquire which of the following characteristics?
(a) A mechanism for moving water throughout the plant.
(b) A mechanism to prevent desiccation of tissues.
(c) An ability to screen ultraviolet radiation.
(d) Both (b) and (c)

Deep in the tropical rain forest, a botanist discovered an unusual plant with vascular tissues, stomata, a cuticle, flagellated sperm, cone-like reproductive structures bearing seeds, and an alternation-of-generations life cycle. He was very excited about this discovery because it would be rather unusual for a plant to have both
(a) a cuticle and flagellated sperm.
(b) vascular tissues and alternation of generations.
(c) seeds and flagellated sperm.
(d) alternation of generations and seeds.

A universal feature of the life cycle of plants is
(a) morphologically identical haploid and diploid stages.
(b) genetically identical haploid and diploid stages.
(c) alteration of generations between heteromorphic haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes.
(d) none of the above

Angiosperms have dominated the land flora primarily because of their
(a) power of adaptability in diverse habitat.
(b) property of producing large number of seeds.
(c) nature of self pollination.
(d) domestication of man.

A student was given a sample to observe under the microscope. He observed and found that the sample is the most common type of spore involved in asexual reproduction in algae. Identify the spore.
(a) Zoospore (b) Endospore
(c) Hypnospore (d) None of these

Refer to the statement and answer the question.
“They usually reproduce vegetatively by fragmentation
and asexually by non – motile spores and sexually by non motile gametes”
Identify the group of plants and its example.
(a) Mosses, Funaria
(b) Red algae, Polysiphonia
(c) Brown algae, Laminaria
(d) Pteridophytes, Selaginella

CHAPTER-2: The Biological Classifications

Which of the following characteristic(s) is/are used by Whittaker for the classification of organisms ?
(a) Mode of nutrition
(b) Thallus organisation
(c) Phylogenetic relationships
(d) All of the above

Organisms of which of the following kingdom do not have nuclear membrane ?
(a) Protista (b) Fungi
(c) Monera (d) Plantae

Protists are
(a) single-celled eukaryotes.
(b) multicellular eukaryotes.
(c) single-celled prokaryotes.
(d) single-celled akaryote

Which of the following pigment is present in cyanobacteria?
(a) Chlorophyll ‘a’ (b) Chlorophyll ‘b’
(c) Chlorophyll ‘c’ (d) Chlorophyll ‘d’

Which of the following is the smallest living cell and can live without oxygen?
(a) Mycoplasma (b) Mycorrhiza
(c) Euglena (d) Trypanosoma

Which of the following processes are involved in the reproduction of protists ?
(a) Binary fission and budding
(b) Cell fusion and zygote formation
(c) Spore formation and cyst formation
(d) All of the above

Which of the following pairs come under the group chrysophytes?
(a) Diatoms and Euglena
(b) Euglena and Trypanosoma
(c) Diatoms and Desmids
(d) Gonyaulax and Desmids

Which of the following is an example of amoeboid protozoans ?
(a) Trypanosoma (b) Paramecium
(c) Gonyaulax (d) Entamoeba

Which of the following is a parasitic fungi on the mustard plant ?
(a) Albugo (b) Puccinia
(c) Yeast (d) Ustilago

Which of the following is used extensively in biochemical and genetic work ?
(a) Agaricus (b) Alternaria
(c) Neurospora (d) Mucor

Which of the following is/are example(s) of deuteromycetes?
(a) Alternaria (b) Colletotrichum
(c) Trichoderma (d) All of these

Which group of fungi is commonly known as imperfect fungi ?
(a) Phycomycetes (b) Ascomycetes
(c) Basidiomycetes (d) Deuteromycetes

Bladderwort and Venus fly trap are examples of
(a) insectivorous plants (b) parasitic plants
(c) N2 – rich plants (d) aquatic plants

The subunit of capsid is called
(a) core (b) nucleotide
(c) amino acid (d) capsomere

Which of the following is not a viral disease ?
(a) AIDS and mumps (b) Small pox and herpes
(c) Influenza (d) Cholera

The symbiotic association between fungi and algae is called
(a) lichen (b) mycorrhiza
(c) rhizome (d) endomycorrhiza

The genetic material of virus includes
(a) only RNA.
(b) only DNA.
(c) RNA and DNA both
(d) RNA or DNA , i.e., one nucleic acid in a virus.

Dikaryon formation is the characteristic feature of
(a) ascomycetes and basidiomycetes.
(b) phycomycetes and basidiomycetes.
(c) ascomycetes and phycomycetes.
(d) phycomycetes and zygomycetes.

Clamp connection is found in
(a) basidiomycetes (b) ascomycetes
(c) saccharomycetes (d) haplomycetes

Plasmogamy is the fusion of
(a) two haploid cells including their nuclei.
(b) two haploid cells without nuclear fusion.
(c) sperm and egg.
(d) sperm and two polar nuclei.

Which scientist classified plants into trees, shrubs and herbs and animals into two groups based on absence or presence red blood cells?
(a) Aristotle (b) R. H. Whittaker
(c) D. J. Ivanowsky (d) W. M. Stanley

Fungi are filamentous with the exception of “X” which is unicellular. Identify X.
(a) Yeast (b) Albugo
(c) Mucor (d) Lichen

The bacteria which oxidize various inorganic substances and use the released energy for the synthesis of food are called ___.
(a) Archaebacteria
(b) Heterotrophic bacteria
(c) Photosynthetic autotrophic bacteria
(d) Chemosynthetic autotrophic bacteria

Which of the following statements is not correct for viruses?
(a) Viruses are obligate parasites.
(b) Viruses can multiply only when they are inside the
living cells.
(c) Viruses cannot pass through bacterial filters.
(d) Viruses are made up of protein and DNA or RNA
(never both DNA and RNA).

Which of the following statements is correct for archaea?
(a) Archaea resemble eukaryotes in all respects.
(b) Archaea have some novel features that are absent in other prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
(c) Archaea completely differ from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
(d) Archaea completely differ from prokaryotes

Which of the following statements is not correct for methanogens?
(a) They are archaebacteria.
(b) They live in marshy areas.
(c) Methane is their preferred carbon source.
(d) They are present in guts of several ruminant animals (cow, buffaloes) and produce biogas (CH4) from the dung of these animals.

Which of the following statements is correct for both blue-green algae and bacteria ?
(a) Both show anaerobic respiration.
(b) Both have chlorophyll pigment.
(c) Both are devoid of true nucleus.
(d) None of the above

Which of the following statements is incorrect ?
(a) TMV has a double-stranded RNA molecule.
(b) Most plant viruses are RNA viruses.
(c) The bacteriophage has double-stranded DNA.
(d) Most animal viruses are DNA viruses.

Which of the following statement is/ are correct for bacteria?
(a) They are the members of the kingdom monera.
(b) They live in extreme habitats such as hot springs, deserts, snow and deep oceans.
(c) They show the most extensive metabolic diversity.
(d) All of the above

Which of the following statements is a characteristic feature of chrysophytes?
(a) They are parasitic forms which cause diseases in animals.
(b) They have a protein rich layer called pellicle.
(c) They have indestructible cell wall layer deposited with silica.
(d) They are commonly called dinoflagellates

Which of the following statements is correct for dinoflagellates flagella ?
(a) A single flagellum lies in the transverse groove between the cell plates.
(b) A single flagellum lies in the longitudinal groove between the cell plates.
(c) Two flagella, one lies longitudinally and the other
transversely in a furrow between the wall plates.
(d) Flagella are absent

Choose the correct statements (i – v) regarding mycoplasma
(i) Mycoplasma has no cell wall.
(ii) Mycoplasma is the smallest living organism known.
(iii) Mycoplasma cannot survive without O2.
(iv) Mycoplasma are pathogenic in animals and plants.
(v) A sort of sexual reproduction occurs in bacterium by adopting a primitive DNA transfer from one bacterium to the other.
(a) Only (iii) (b) (i), (iii) and (v)
(c) (i), (ii), (iv), and (v) (d) All of the above

Read the given statements and answer the question.
(i) It includes unicellular as well as multicellular fungi.
(ii) In multicellular forms, hyphae are branched and septate.
(iii) Conidiophore produces conidia (spores) exogenously in chain.
(iv) Sexual spores are ascospores produced endogenously in chain.
(v) Fruiting body is called ascocarp. Identify the correct class of fungi which have all the above given characteristics.
(a) Phycomycetes (b) Sac fungi
(c) Club fungi (d) Fungi imperfecti

T. O. Diener discovered a new infectious agent that was smaller than viruses and have the following characteristics.
(i) It causes potato spindle tuber disease.
(ii) It has free RNA.
(iii) Molecular weight of RNA is low. Identify the infections agent.
(a) Viruses (b) Viroids
(c) Virion (d) Mycoplasma

Consider the following statements with respect to characteristic features of the kingdom.
(i) In animalia, the mode of nutrition is autotrophic.
(ii) In monera, the nuclear membrane is present.
(iii) In protista, the cell type is prokaryotic.
(iv) In plantae, the cell wall is present.
Of the above statements, which one is correct ?
(a) (i) only (b) (ii) only
(c) (iii) only (d) (iv) only

Which of the following are the characters of dinoflagellates?
(i) They are planktonic golden yellow algae with soap box like structure.
(ii) They are marine red biflagellated protista.
(iii) They appear yellow, green, brown, blue and red in colour.
(iv) They are biflagellated organisms with pellicle.
(v) They are saprophytic (or) parasitic unicellular forms.
(a) (ii) and (iii) (b) (ii) and (v)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) (d) (ii), (iv) and (v)

The given characters are seen in which of the following group?
(i) Unicellular, colonial, filamentous, marine or terrestrial
forms.
(ii) The colonies are surrounded by a gelatinous sheath.
(iii) Some can fix atmospheric nitrogen in specialized cells called heterocysts.
(iv) They often form blooms in water bodies.

(a) Archaebacteria (b) Cyanobacteria
(c) Chrysophytes (d) Dinoflagellates

Which of the following group of kingdom protista is being described in the statements given below ?
(i) This group includes diatoms and golden algae.
(ii) They are microscopic and float passively in water currents (plankton).
(iii) Most of them are photosynthetic.
(iv) They have deposits in their habitat; this accumulation over billion of years is referred to as ‘diatomaceous earth’.
(a) Dinoflagellates (b) Chrysophytes
(c) Euglenoids (d) Slime moulds

The given statements are some characters of a particular group of Kingdom protista.
(i) Most of them are fresh water organisms found in standing water.
(ii) They have a protein rich layer (called pellicle) which makes their body flexible.
(iii) They have two flagella, a short and a long one.
(iv) Though they are photosynthetic in the presence of sunlight, but in the absence of sunlight they behave like heterotrophs by predating on other smaller organisms.
Identify the correct group on the basis of these characters.
(a) Protozoans (b) Chrysophytes
(c) Slime moulds (d) Euglenoids

Which of the following class of fungi is being described by the given statements ?
(i) They are found in aquatic habitats and on decaying wood in moist and damp places.
(ii) Mycelium is aseptate and coenocytic.
(iii) Asexual reproduction takes place by zoospores
(motile) or by aplanospores (non-motile).
(iv) Some common examples are Mucor, Rhizopus and Albugo.
(a) Ascomycetes (b) Phycomycetes
(c) Basidiomycetes (d) Deuteromycetes

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about ascomycetes ?
(i) Neurospora, which is used in biochemical and genetic work is a member of this class.
(ii) They are mostly multicellular, e.g., Yeast, or rarely unicellular, e.g., Penicillium.
(iii) They are saprophytic, decomposers, parasitic or coprophilous.
(iv) Some examples are Aspergillus, Claviceps and Neurospora.
(a) Both (i) and (ii) (b) Only (ii)
(c) (i), (iii) and (iv) (d) All of these

Read the following statements and answer the question given below
(i) They are saprophytic protists.
(ii) Under suitable conditions, they form an aggregation
(called plasmodium) which may grow and spread over several feet.
(iii) During unfavourable conditions, the plasmodium differentiates and forms fruiting bodies bearing spores at their tips.
Which of the following class of protists is being described by the above statements ?
(a) Euglenoids (b) Dinoflagellates
(c) Slime moulds (d) Protozoans

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about class basidiomycetes ?
(i) They are commonly known as imperfect fungi because only the asexual or vegetative phases of these fungi are known.
(ii) They grow in soil, on logs and tree stumps and in living plant bodies as parasites, e.g., rusts and smuts.
(iii) The mycelium is branched and septate.
(iv) Some common members are Agaricus, Ustilago and Puccinia.
(a) Only (i) (b) Both (ii) and (iii)
(c) (ii), (iii) and (iv) (d) All of these

Read the following statements and answer the question.
(i) Some members are saprophytes or parasites while a large number of them are decomposers of litter and help in mineral cycling.
(ii) They reproduce only by asexual spores known as conidia.
(iii) Mycelium is septate and branched.
(iv) Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Trichoderma are examples of this class.
Which of the following class of fungi is being described by the above statements ?
(a) Phycomycetes (b) Deuteromycetes
(c) Basidiomycetes (d) Ascomycetes

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct ?
(i) Reproduction in fungi can take place by vegetative means – fragmentation, fission and budding.
(ii) Fusion of two nuclei is called plasmogamy.
(iii) Fusion of protoplasms between two motile or nonmotile gametes is called karyogamy.
(iv) Meiosis in zygote results in diploid spores.
(a) Only (i) (b) Both (ii) and (iii)
(c) (ii), (iii) and (iv) (d) All of these

Which of the following statements regarding cyanobacteria is incorrect?
(a) It is also called blue green algae.
(b) They are chemosynthetic autotrophs.
(c) It forms blooms in polluted water bodies.
(d) It is unicellular, colonial or filamentous, marine or terrestrial bacteria.

In the following questions, a statement of Assertion is followed by a statement of Reason.
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is
the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true but the Reason is
not the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) If both Assertion and Reason are false.

Assertion : Euglena can be placed in the plant knigdom due to the presence of chlorophyll.
Reason : Euglena cannot be classified on the basis of two kingdom system of classification.

Assertion : Outside a living cell, viruses have must crystalline statements.
Reason : Viroids have a protein coat.

Assertion : TMV is a virus which causes mosaic disease.
Reason : TMV has RNA as genetic material.

Assertion : Lichen is important for chemical industries.
Reason : Litmus and Orcein are formed from lichens.

Assertion : Yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are used in baking industry.
Reason : Carbon dioxide produced during fermentation causes bread dough to rise by thermal expansion.

Match the class of fungi given in column-I with their common name given in column-II and select the correct option.

(a) A – II, B – I, C – IV, D – III
(b) A – II, B – IV, C – I, D – III
(c) A – IV, B – I, C – II, D – III
(d) A – IV, B – III, C – II, D – I

Match the terms given in column-I with their examples given in column-II and choose the correct option

(a) A – II, B – III, C – IV, D – V, E – I
(b) A – I, B – II, C – III, D – V, E – IV
(c) A – II, B – V, C – III, D – I, E – IV
(d) A – II, B – III, C – IV, D – I, E – V

Match the class of fungi given in column I with their examples given in column II and choose the correct option

(a) A – IV, B – III, C – I, D – II
(b) A – II, B – III, C – IV, D – I
(c) A – IV, B – I, C – II, D – III
(d) A – III, B – IV, C – II, D – I

Match column I (Kingdom) with column II (Class) and select the correct options

(a) A – IV, B – III, C – II, D – I
(b) A – I, B – II, C – III, D – IV
(c) A – III, B – IV, C – II, D – I
(d) A – IV, B – II, C – III, D – I

Match the scientists given in column I with their discovery given in column II and choose the correct option.

(a) A – IV, B – III, C – II, D – I
(b) A – III, B – IV, C – II, D – I
(c) A – II, B – III, C – IV, D – I
(d) A – I, B – II, C – III, D – IV

Match column I (containing fungus name) with column II (common name) and choose the correct options.

(a) A – I, B – II, C – III, D – IV
(b) A – II, B – III, C – IV, D – I
(c) A – III, B – IV, C – I, D – II
(d) A – IV, B – III, C – II, D – I

Match the type of protozoans given in column-I with their examples given in column-II and choose the correct option.

(a) A – I, B – III, C – IV, D – II
(b) A – III, B – I, C – II, D – IV
(c) A – III, B – I, C – IV, D – II
(d) A – III, B – IV, C – I, D – II

Match column-I (Characters/feature) with column-II (examples) and choose the correct option.

(a) A – III, B – II, C – I, D – IV
(b) A – II, B – III, C – I, D – IV
(c) A – II, B – III, C – IV, D – I
(d) A – II, B – IV, C – III, D – I

Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?
(a) Anabaena – Cyanobacteria
(b) Amoeba – Protozoa
(c) Gonyaulax – Dinoflagellates
(d) Albugo – Chrysophytes

Which of the following groups of protozoan is not correctly matched with its feature?
(a) Amoeboid – Marine forms have silica shells on their surface.
(b) Flagellated – Either free living or parasitic.
(c) Ciliated – Actively moving organisms due to presence of cilia.
(d) Sporozoans – Move and capture their prey with the help of false feet.

Select the correct match from the given option.
(a) Occurrence of dikaryotic stage – ascomycetes and basidiomycetes.
(b) Saprophytes – They are autotrophic and absorb soluble organic matter from dead substrates.
(c) Vegetative mean of reproduction in fungi – fragmentation, budding and sporangiophores.
(d) Steps involved in asexual cycle of fungi – plasmogamy, karyogamy and meiosis in zygote resulting in haploid spores.

Refer to the given figures of bacteria cell and Nostoc and choose the option which shows correct label for the structures marked as A, B, C, D and E ?

(a) A – Cell wall, B – Cell membrane, C – Heterocyst,
D – DNA, E – Mucilagenous sheath
(b) A – Cell wall, B – Cell membrane, C – DNA,
D – Heterocyst, E – Mucilagenous sheath
(c) A – Mucilagenous sheath, B – Cell membrane,
C – DNA, D – Heterocyst, E – Cell wall
(d) A – Cell membrane, B – Cell wall, C – DNA,
D – Heterocyst, E – Mucilagenous sheath

Choose the correct names of the different bacteria given below according to their shapes.

(a) A – Cocci, B – Bacilli, C – Spirilla, D – Vibrio
(b) A – Bacilli, B – Cocci, C – Spirilla, D – Vibrio
(c) A – Spirilla, B – Bacilli, C – Cocci, D – Vibrio
(d) A – Spirilla, B – Vibrio, C – Cocci, D – Bacilli

Identify the figures A, B and C given below.

(a) A – Euglena, B – Paramecium, C – Agaricus
(b) A – Euglena, B – Planaria, C – Agaricus
(c) A – Planaria, B – Paramecium, C – Agaricus
(d) A – Euglena, B – Paramecium, C – Aspergillus

The figure given below shows the structure of a bacteriophage. Identify its parts labelled as A, B, C and D.

The given figure shows the structure of filamentous blue green algae. Nostoc with a structure marked as “X”. Select the option which shows the correct identification of “X” with its feature.

(a) Spores – Reproduction
(b) Heterocysts – Nitrogen fixation
(c) Pellicle – Recycling of nutrition
(d) Mucilaginous sheath – Photosynthesis

The given figure shows some structures labelled as A, B, C and D. Which structure has the protein coat that encloses the nucleic acid?

(a) A (b) B
(c) C (d) D

Bacteria lack alternation of generation because there is
(a) neither syngamy nor reduction division.
(b) no distinct chromosomes.
(c) no conjugation.
(d) no exchange of genetic material.

Yeast is not included in protozoans but are placed fungi because
(a) it has no chlorophyll.
(b) some fungal hyphae grow in such a way that they give the appearance of pseudomycelium.
(c) it has eukaryotic organization.
(d) cell wall is made up of cellulose and reserve food material is starch.

A virus can be considered a living organism because it
(a) responds to touch stimulus
(b) respires
(c) reproduces (inside the host)
(d) can cause disease

Lichens indicate SO2 pollution because they
(a) show association between algae and fungi.
(b) grow faster than others.
(c) are sensitive to SO2.
(d) flourish in SO2 rich environment

When a moist bread is kept exposed in air, it becomes mouldy and black because
(a) spores are present in the water.
(b) spores are present in the bread.
(c) spores are present in the air.
(d) the bread decomposes.

In some viruses, RNA is present instead of DNA indicating that
(a) their nucleic acid must combine with host DNA before replication.
(b) they cannot replicate.
(c) there is no hereditary information.
(d) RNA can transfer heredity material.

Ustilago causes plant diseases (called smuts) because
(a) they parasitize on cereals.
(b) they lack mycelium.
(c) they develop sooty masses of spores.
(d) their affected parts becomes completely black.

A fungus contains cells with two nuclei from different genomes. The nuclei do not fuse but divide independently and simultaneously as new cells are formed. This fungus belongs to
(a) phycomycetes (b) zygomycetes
(c) deuteromycetes (d) basidiomycetes

Which of the following organisms is\are correctly assigned its/their taxonomic group?
(a) Paramecium and Plasmodium belong to the same kingdom as that of Penicillium.
(b) Lichen is a composite organism formed from the symbiotic association of an alga and a protozoan.
(c) Yeast used in making bread and beer is a fungus.
(d) Nostoc and Anabaena are examples of protista.

Bacteria are found to be primitive organisms because they (a) are small, microscopic which are not seen with naked eye.
(b) cause serious diseases to human being, domestic animals and crop plants.
(c) produce endospores which are very resistant to adverse conditions.
(d) possess incipient nucleus and show amitotic division.

Food can be kept for a longer time in cold house than in normal conditions because
(a) insect cannot enter.
(b) bacterial multiplication stops.
(c) bacterial multiplication is reduced.
(d) there is plasmolysis at low temperature.

Mycorrhizae are useful for plants because they
(a) fix atmospheric nitrogen.
(b) enhance absorption of nutrients from the soil.
(c) kill insects and pathogen.
(d) provide resistance against abiotic stresses.

The most abundant prokaryotes helpful to humans in making curd from milk and in production of antibiotics are categorised as
(a) cyanobacteria
(b) archaebacteria
(c) chemosynthetic autotrophs
(d) heterotrophic bacteria

A specimen of fungus is brought by a student for identification. Upon close examination, he discovered that its hyphae are completely septate and it has gills on the underside of the pileus. To which fungal group does it
most likely belong ?
(a) Basidiomycetes (b) Zygomycetes
(c) Ascomycetes (d) Chytrids

How many bacteria are produced in four hours if a bacterium divides once in half an hour ?
(a) 8 (b) 64
(c) 16 (d) 256

Fungi show asexual reproduction by all of the following kinds of spores except
(a) conidia (b) oospores
(c) sporangiospores (d) zoospores

Assume that two normal hyphal cells of different fungal mating types unite. After a period of time, the cell between these cells will dissolve producing a
(a) mycelium
(b) fruiting body
(c) zygote
(d) dikaryotic cell, which is also heterokaryotic

Protozons are not included in kingdom animalia because they are
(a) mostly asymmetrical.
(b) unicellular eukaryotes.
(c) heterotrophic in nature.
(d) multicellular prokaryotes.

Bacteria and yeast are similar in all the following features except that
(a) both are unicellular.
(b) both are prokaryotes.
(c) both are capable of causing fermentation.
(d) both produce spores.

Which of the following is the correct sequence of three steps in the sexual cycle of fungi?
(a) Mitosis → Meiosis → Fertilization
(b) Plasmogamy → Karyogamy → Meiosis
(c) Mitosis → Plasmogamy → Karyogamy
(d) Karyogamy → Plasmogamy → Meiosis

An “X” reproduces in such a great numbers that the water may appear, producing a red tides and kills large marine animals like “Z”. “X” belongs to “Y”. Identify “X”, “Y” and “Z”.
(a) X – Gonyaulax ; Y – Dinoflagellates; Z – Fishes
(b) X – Paramecium ; Y – Protozoa ; Z -Crocodiles
(c) X – Trypanosoma ; Y – Protozoa ; Z – Frogs
(d) X – Plasmodium ; Y – Euglenoids ; Z – Oysters

Identify the basis of classification of fungi into phycomycetes, ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes.
i. Fruiting bodies
ii. Nature of habitat
iii. Morphology of mycelium
iv. Mode of spore formation
(a) i & ii only (b) ii & iii only
(c) i, iii, & iv only (d) All of these

Which class of fungi lacks sex organs but the process of plasmogamy is brought about by fusion of two vegetative or somatic cells of different strains or genotypes?
(a) Sac fungi (b) Bracket fungi
(c) Imperfect fungi (d) Phycomycetes

Refer to the statement and answer the question. “Once the sexual stage of members of deuteromycetes were discovered, they were often moved to X and Y.” Identify X and Y.
(a) X – Monera ; Y – Protista
(b) X – Basidiomycetes ; Y – Phycomycetes
(c) X – Ascomycetes ; Y – Basidiomycetes
(d) X – Phycomycetes ; Y – Archaebacteria

A scientist “X” demonstrated that extract of infected plants of “Y” could cause infection in healthy plants and called the fluid as “Contagium vivum fluidum”.Identify X and Y.

X Y
(a) W. M. Stanley Potato
(b) M. W. Beijerinek Tobacco
(c) D. J. Ivanowsky Cauliflower
(d) Pasteur Tomato

CHAPTER-1: The Living World

Which of the following are unique features of living organisms?
(a) Growth and reproduction
(b) Reproduction and ability to sense environment
(c) Metabolism and interaction
(d) All of the above

Cell division occurs in plants and in animals.
(a) continuously, only upto a certain age
(b) only upto a certain age, continuously
(c) continuously, never
(d) once, twice

In unicellular organisms, with respect to growth and
reproduction following can be true.

  1. Growth and Reproduction are inclusive events.
  2. unicellular organisms grow by cell division.
  3. Both are exclusive
    (a) Only 1 correct (b) Only 2 correct
    (c) Both 1 and 2 correct (d) Only 3 correct

In majority of higher animals and plants, _ and _are mutually exclusive events.
(a) growth; nutrition
(b) nutrition; consciousness
(c) growth; reproduction
(d) reproduction; consciousness

Non-living objects-

  1. Grows from external surface by collecting substance
    on it.
  2. Grows from internal surface like living.
  3. Do not grow at all.
    Which of the followings option is correct?
    (a) Only 1 correct (b) Only 2 correct
    (c) Only 3 correct (d) All 1, 2, 3 correct

In multicellular organisms, _ refers to the production of progeny possessing features more or less similar to those of parents.
(a) growth (b) reproduction
(c) metabolism (d) consciousness

The fungi, the filamentous algae, the protonema of mosses, all easily multiply by _.
(a) budding (b) fission
(c) regeneration (d) fragmentation

Which of the following factors exclusively affects reproduction in seasonal breeders, both plants and animals?
(a) Water (b) Temperature
(c) Photoperiod (d) All of these

The sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in our body is known as
(a) metabolism (b) growth
(c) regeneration (d) reproduction

Which of the following term is used to refer the number of varieties of plants and animals on earth ?
(a) Taxonomy (b) Identification
(c) Biodiversity (d) Classification

ICBN stands for
(a) International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
(b) International Congress of Biological Names
(c) Indian Code of Botanical Nomenclature
(d) Indian Congress of Biological Names

Binomial nomenclature means
(a) one name given by two scientists.
(b) one scientific name consisting of a generic and
specific epithet.
(c) two names, one latinized, other of a person.
(d) two names of same plant.

In printed scientific names, only the __ is capitalized.
(a) class (b) species
(c) genus (d) family

Each category of taxonomic hierarchy refers to as a unit of __.
(a) systematic (b) identification
(c) nomenclature (d) classification

Systematics refers to the
(a) identification and classification of plants and animals.
(b) nomenclature and identification of plants and animals.
(c) diversity of kinds of organisms and their relationship.
(d) different kinds of organisms and their classification

Taxon is a
(a) unit of classification.
(b) species.
(c) highest rank of classification.
(d) group of closely related organisms.

The practical purpose of classification of living organisms is to
(a) explain the origin of living organsims.
(b) trace the evolution of living organsims.
(c) name the living organisms.
(d) facilitate identification of unknown organisms.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of life?
(a) Reproduction
(b) Complex chemical organization
(c) Adaptation to environmental changes
(d) Differentiation from cells to tissues

Families are characterized on which of the following features of plant species?
(a) External morphology
(b) Anatomy of parts
(c) Vegetative and reproductive parts
(d) Seasonal similarities and variations

The order generally ends with
(a) ales (b) aceae
(c) eae (d) none of these

Which of the following taxonomic aid provides information for the identification of names of species found in an area?
(a) Monograph (b) Manual
(c) Flora (d) Periodical

Which one of the taxonomic aids can give comprehensive account of complete compiled information of any one genus or family at a particular time?
(a) Taxonomic key (b) Flora
(c) Herbarium (d) Monograph

Which one of the following taxonomical aid is used for identification of plants and animals based on similarities and dissimilarities?
(a) Flora (b) Keys
(c) Monographs (d) Catalogues

Herbarium is a
(a) garden where medicinal plants are grown.
(b) garden where herbaceous plants are grown.
(c) dry garden.
(d) chemical to kill plants

The famous botanical garden ‘Kew’ is located in
(a) England (b) Lucknow
(c) Berlin (d) Australia

Keys are generally _ in nature.
(a) physical (b) chemical
(c) analytical (d) qualitative

Each statement in the key is called _.
(a) lead (b) catalogues
(c) manuals (d) monographs

The keys are based on contrasting characters generally in a pair called _.
(a) flora (b) couplet
(c) both (a) and (b) (d) manuals

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
(a) Only living organisms grow.
(b) Plants grow only up to a certain age.
(c) The growth in living organisms is from inside.
(d) All of the above.

Growth in living organisms occurs by
(a) division of cells.
(b) increase in biomass.
(c) accumulation of materrial by external agency.
(d) both (a) and (b).

Which one of the following is not a correct statement?
(a) Botanical gardens have collection of living plants for reference.
(b) A museum has collection of photographs of plants and animals.
(c) Key is a taxonomic aid for identification of specimens.
(d) Herbarium is a store house that contains dried, pressed and preserved plant specimens.

Which two points are known as the twin characteristics of growth?
(i) Increase in mass
(ii) Differentiation
(iii) Increase in number of individuals
(iv) Response to stimuli
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (i) and (iv)
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (i) and (iii)

Which of the following statements regarding nomenclature is correct?
(a) Generic name always begins with capital letter
whereas specific name with small letter.
(b) Scientific name should be printed in italics.
(c) Scientific name when typed or handwritten should
be underlined.
(d) All of the above

Which of the following statements are correct about herbarium?
(a) It is a store house of collected plant specimens that are dried and preserved on sheets.
(b) Herbarium sheets contain information about date and place of collection, names, family, collector’s name, etc.
(c) It serves as quick referral systems in taxonomical studies.
(d) All of the above

Which of the following statements regarding growth is incorrect?
(a) In plants, growth by cell division is seen only upto a
certain stage.
(b) Growth exhibited by non-living objects is by
accumulation of material on the surface.
(c) A multicellular organism grows by cell division.
(d) Growth in in vitro culture of unicellular organisms
can be observed by counting the number of cells.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct for Metabolism ?
(a) It is the sum total of all physical reactions taking place inside a living system.
(b) All plants, animals, fungi and microbes exhibit metabolism.
(c) Isolated metabolic reactions in-vitro are not living but are living reactions.
(d) All of the above

Which one of the following statements is correct about biodiversity ?
(a) It is the occurrence of varied type of organisms on earth.
(b) Each different kind of plant, animal or organism represents a species.
(c) The number of species that are known and described range between 1.7–1.8 million.
(d) All of the above

Which of the following statements are not correct ?
(i) Lower the taxon, more are the characteristics that the members within the taxon share.
(ii) Order is the assemblage of genera which exhibit a few similar characters.
(iii) Cat and dog are included in the same family Felidae.
(iv) Binomial nomenclature was introduced by Carolus Linnaeus.
(a) (i), (ii) and (iii) (b) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(c) (i) and (iv) (d) (ii) and (iii)

Which of the following statements are correct?
(i) Genus comprises a group of related species.
(ii) Taxon represents a taxonomic group of individual organisms.
(iii) Family comprises a group of related genera.
(iv) Taxonomic category class includes related orders.
(a) (i), (ii), and (iv)
(b) (ii) and (iv)
(c) (i), (iii) and (iv)
(d) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

Which of the following statement(s) is/are not correct ?
(i) Reproduction is the production of progeny possessing features dissimilar to their parents.
(ii) The fungi, the filamentous algae, the protonema of mosses, all multiply by budding.
(iii) Many organisms like mules, sterile worker bees do not reproduce.
(iv) Reproduction is not an all-inclusive defining characteristic of living organisms.
(a) Only (i) (b) Both (i) and (ii)
(c) Both (ii) and (iv) (d) All of these

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct ?
(i) All living organisms have ability to respond the environment stimuli which could be physical, chemical or biological.
(ii) Plants respond to external factors like light, water, temperature, other organisms, pollutants, etc.
(iii) Photoperiod affects the process of reproduction.
(iv) Human being is the only organism who has self consciousness.
(a) Only (i) (b) Both (ii) and (iii)
(c) Both (i) and (iv) (d) All of these

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct ?
(i) Classification is the providing of standardize names to the organisms such that a particular organism known by the same all over the world.
(ii) Taxonomy is the correct description of an organism and to recognition in its scientific name.
(iii) The system of naming with two components
(binomial nomenclature) is proposed by Carolus Linneaus.
(iv) Zoological names are based on International Code
for Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).
(a) Only (i) (b) Both (iii) and (iv)
(c) Only (iv) (d) All of these

Which of the following taxonomic categories is being described by the given statements (i-iii) ?
(i) It is the basic unit of classification.
(ii) It is defined as the group of individuals which resemble in their morphological and reproductive characters and interbreed among themselves and produce fertile offsprings.
(iii) Human beings belong to the species sapiens which is grouped in the genus Homo.
(a) Species (b) Genus
(c) Order (d) Family

Which of the following statement(s) is/are not correct ?
(i) Genus comprises a group of related species which has more characters in common in comparison to species of other genera.
(ii) Three different genera such as Solanum, Datura and Petunia are placed in the family malvaceae.
(iii) In case of plants, classes with a few similar characters
are assigned to a higher category called phylum.
(a) Both (i) and (ii) (b) Only (iii)
(c) Both (ii) and (iii) (d) All of these

Which of the following taxonomical aids is being described
by the given statements (i-iv) ?
(i) They generally established in educational institutes.
(ii) They have collections of preserved plant and animal specimens for study and reference.
(iii) Insects are preserved in boxes after collecting, killing and pinning.
(iv) They often have collections of skeletons of animals too.
(a) Herbarium (b) Museum
(c) Zoological parks (d) Botanical gardens

Which of the following statements regarding growth is incorrect?
(a) In animals growth is seen up to a certain age.
(b) Increase in body mass is considered as growth.
(c) Growth by cell division occurs continuously throughout their life span in animals.
(d) Increase in mass and number of individuals is the characteristics feature of animal growth.

Select the correct statements (i-v) regarding taxonomic categories.
(i) Each step or rank in hierarchy is called taxonomic
category.
(ii) Species is a group of individual organisms with
fundamental similarities capable of breeding among themselves.
(iii) Taxonomic studies of all unknown organisms have led to the development of common categories like kingdom, phylum or division, class, order, family, genus and species.
(iv) Lower the category, greater is the difficulty of determining the relationship to other taxa at the same level.
(a) (i) & (ii) only (b) (ii) & (iv) only
(c) (i), (ii) & (iii) only (d) All of the above

Which of the following statements is incorrect?
(a) The scientific name for humans is Homo sapiens.
(b) Organisms placed in the same genus are least closely related.
(c) Moving from species to kingdom, more different species are included in each higher category.
(d) Species that are in the same genus share very specific characteristics.

Study the following statements and select the correct description of botanical garden.
(i) Plant species are grown for identification purposes.
(ii) Labeling of each plant consists of its botanical name/ scientific name and its family.
(iii) Specimens are preserved in the jars and containers.
(iv) It is a type of store house which contains dried, pressed and preserved plant specimens on sheet.
(v) Plant specimen contains a labeling of information about date and place of collection.
(a) (i) and (ii) only (b) (i), (ii) and (iii) only
(c) (ii) and (iv) only (d) All the five statements

Which of the following is the correct sequence of the various steps of Herbarium formation?
(1) Drying (2) Poisoning (3) Collection
(4) Labelling (5) Mounting (6) Deposition
(7) Stitching
(a) 3, 1, 2, 5, 7, 4, 6 (b) 3, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1
(c) 3, 1, 2, 5, 7, 6, 4 (d) 3, 1, 2, 7, 5, 6, 4

Which of the following pair is correctly matched.
(i) Fungi – Regeneration
(ii) Mossess – Fragmentation
(iii) Planaria – Budding
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) Both (i) and (iii)
(c) only (ii) (d) only (iii)

Dicotyledons like mango, brinjal and monocotyledons like Wheat and Rice are placed under a taxonomic category known as
(a) Phylum – Angiospermae
(b) Division – Angiospermae
(c) Class – Angiospermae
(d) Sereis – Polypetalae

Amongst the given taxonomic aids, how many are associated with preservation of specimens? Monograph, Flora, Key, Museums, Botanical Gardens, Catalogue, Herbarium, Manual
(a) One (b) Three
(c) Two (d) Four

In the following questions, a statement of Assertion is followed
by a statement of Reason.
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true but the Reason is not the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) If both Assertion and Reason are false

Assertion : Taxon and category are different things.
Reason : Category shows hierarchical classification.

Assertion : The species is reproductively isolated natural population.
Reason : Prokaryotes cannot be kept under different species on the basis of reproductive isolation.

Assertion: Information given on the label of herbarium sheets does not include family.
Reason: Families are characterized on the basis of reproductive features of plant species only.

Assertion: Flora contains the actual account of habitat and distribution of plants of a given area.
Reason : Flora helps in correct identification.

Assertion : Panthera is a polytypic genera.
Reason : Panthera has specific epithets like leo, tigris and pardus.

Assertion : Biological concept of species is based on reproductive isolation.
Reason : Most accepted species concept was given by Linnaeus.

Assertion : Botanical Gardens are ex-situ conservation strategy of plants.
Reason : National botanical Garden is situated at Howrah.

Assertion : Scientific names for plants have been standardized through ICBN.
Reason : Naming system which used three word format was given by Linnaeus

Assertion : Two plants A and B are treated as two taxonomic species.
Reason : Both A and B are different in correlated characters.

Match the common name given in column I with their taxonomic category order given in column II and choose the correct combination from the options given below.

(a) A – I; B – II; C – IV; D – III
(b) A – IV; B – III; C – II; D – I
(c) A – II; B – IV; C – I; D – III
(d) A – III; B – IV; C – II; D – I

Match the common name given in column I with their taxonomic category family given in column II and choose the correct combination from the options given below.

(a) A – IV; B – III; C – II; D – I
(b) A – IV; B – III; C – I; D – II
(c) A – I; B – II; C – III; D – IV
(d) A – I; B – III; C – II; D – IV

Match column-I (Biological name) with column-II (Class) and choose the correct option.

(a) A – IV; B – II; C – I; D – III
(b) A – II; B – IV; C – III; D – I
(c) A – II; B – IV; C – I; D – III
(d) A – II; B – I; C – IV; D – III

Match column-I with column-II and choose the correct combination from the options given below.

(a) A – III; B – IV; C – I; D – II
(b) A – IV; B – III; C – I; D – II
(c) A – IV; B – III; C – II; D – I
(d) A – IV; B – I; C – III; D – II

Match column I with column II and choose the correct option.
Column-I Column-II
A. Family I. tuberosum
B. Kingdom II. Polymoniales
C. Order III. Solanum
D. Species IV. Plantae
E. Genus V. Solanaceae
(a) A – IV; B – III; C – V; D – II; E – I
(b) A – V; B – IV; C – II; D – I; E – III
(c) A – IV; B – V; C – II; D – I; E – III
(d) A – V; B – III; C – II; D – I; E – IV

Which one of the following animals is correctly matched with its particular named taxonomic category ?
(a) Tiger – Tigris, the species
(b) Cuttle fish – Mollusca, a class
(c) Humans – Primata, the family
(d) Housefly – Musca, an order

Which of the following taxonomic category of housefly is incorrectly matched?
(a) Genus – Musca
(b) Family – Muscidae
(c) Order – Primata
(d) Class – Insecta

Which of the following organisms is not correctly matched with its particular ?
(a) Human beings – Sapiens, species
(b) Lion – Panthera, genus
(c) Cats – Felidae, genus
(d) Datura – Solanaceae, family

In the given columns, column I contains the terms and column II contains its description. Select the correct match from the option given below.

A B C D
(a) I II III IV
(b) III I II IV
(c) III I IV II
(d) II IV III I

Match the taxonomic categories given in column I with their feature given in column II.

Select the correct taxonomic aids given in column I with their feature given in columns II.

Select the correct Match.

Consider following diagram and fill the following blank spaces/boxes.

(a) A-Strain, B-Order, C-Sub kingdom
(b) A-species, B-order, C-kingdom
(c) A-subspecies, B-Tribe, C-Domain
(d) A-species, B-Cohort, C-Subdivision

Identify the correct sequence of taxonomic categories.
(a) Species → Genus → Order → Class → Family → Phylum/Division → Kingdom
(b) Species → Genus → Family → Class → Phylum/ Division → Order → Kingdom
(c) Species → Genus → Family → Order → Class → Phylum/Division → Kingdom
(d) Species → Genus → Family → Order → Class v Phylum/Division → Kingdom

Two plants can be conclusively said to belong to the same species if they
(a) have same number of chromosomes.
(b) can reproduce freely with each other and form seeds.
(c) have more than 90 per cent similar genes.
(d) look similar and possess identical secondary metabolites.

‘Taxa’ differs from ‘taxon’ due to being
(a) a higher taxonomic category than taxon.
(b) lower taxonomic category than taxon.
(c) the plural of taxon.
(d) the singular of taxon.

Taxonomic hierarchy refers to
(a) step-wise arrangement of all categories for classification of plants and animals.
(b) a group of senior taxonomists who decide the nomenclature of plants and animals.
(c) a list of botanists or zoologists who have worked on taxonomy of a species or group.
(d) classification of a species based on fossil record.

Two animals which are the members of the same order must also be the members of the same __.
(a) class (b) family
(c) genus (d) species

One of the most important functions of botanical gardens is that
(a) they provide a beautiful area for recreation.
(b) one can observe tropical plants there.
(c) they allow ex-situ conservation of germ plasm.
(d) they provide the natural habitat for wildlife.

The disadvantage of using common names for species is that
(a) the names may change.
(b) one name does not apply universally.
(c) one species may have several common names and
one common name may be applied to two species.
(d) all of the above

The most important feature of all living systems is to
(a) utilize oxygen to generate energy.
(b) replicate the genetic information.
(c) produce gametes.
(d) utilize solar energy for metabolic activities

The common characteristics between tomato and potato will be maximum at the level of their__________.
(a) genus (b) family
(c) order (d) division

Which one of the following is the first step in taxonomy ?
(a) Naming (b) Description
(c) Identification (d) Classification

Which of the following is the only taxonomic categories that has a real existence?
(a) Phylum (b) Species
(c) Genus (d) Kingdom

In angiosperm, characters of flowers are used in classification because
(a) flowers are attractive.
(b) flowers are large.
(c) character of flowers are conserved.
(d) none of the above.

As we go from species to kingdom in a taxonomic hierarchy, the number of common characteristics
(a) will decrease.
(b) will increase.
(c) remain same.
(d) may increase or decrease.

Genus represents
(a) an individual plant or animal.
(b) a collection of plants or animals.
(c) group of closely related species of plants or animals.
(d) none of the above.

The taxonomic unit ‘phylum’ in the classification of animals is equivalent to which hierarchial level in classification of plants ?
(a) Class (b) Order
(c) Division (d) Family

Which of the following is less general in characters as compared to genus?
(a) Species (b) Division
(c) Class (d) Family

If an organism is in the same class but not in the same family then it may belong to same
(a) genus (b) species
(c) variety (d) order

Refer the botanical name of wheat “Triticum aestivum” and identify the statement which correctly describes it.
(a) The second word belongs to genus and starts with a small letter.
(b) Both the words “Triticum aestivum” denote the
specific epithet.
(c) The first word Triticum denotes the genus which starts with a capital letter.
(d) The first word Triticum denotes the specific epithet while the second word denotes the genus.

Which of the following characters given below displays the description of lowest taxonomic category of organisms in the plant and animal kingdom?
(a) It includes one or more than one order.
(b) It is a group containing one or more families.
(c) It is a group of related organisms that resemble one another.
(d) It is a group of organisms that are closely related and share similar characteristics

Which of the following shows the correct example of taxonomic category – Genus?
(a) Potato, tomato and brinjal belong to Solanum.
(b) Monkey, gorilla and gibbon are placed in Mammalia.
(c) Solanum, Petunia, and Datura are placed in Solanacea.
(d) Mangifera indica, Solanum tuberosum, and Panthera leo.

“X” being a higher category is the assemblage of families which exhibit a few “Y” characters. The “Z” characters are less in a number as compared to different genera included in a family. Identify “X”, “Y”, and “Z”.
(a) X – Order; Y – Similar; Z – Similar
(b) X – Genus; Y – Similar; Z – Different
(c) X – Species; Y – Different; Z – Similar
(d) X – Class; Y – Different; Z – Different

Couplet represents the choice made between two opposite options which results in
(a) rejection of both the option.
(b) acceptance of both the option.
(c) either acceptance or rejection of both the option.
(d) acceptance of only one and rejection of the other.